TERMINOLOGY

Click on a term:

Adiabatic Phase Transition
Adiabatic Phase Transition Process Cycle
Adiabatic Demagnetization
Adiabatic Magnetization
Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect
Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect process Cycle
Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect Demagnetization Process Cycle
Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect Magnetization Process Cycle
Coherent Superconductor
Conduction Electrons
Critical Magnetic Field
Critical Temperature
Demagnetization Factor
Enhanced Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect Demagnetization Process Cycle
EnTrap
Entropy
Envelopment
First Law of Thermodynamics
Heat
Heat Capacity
Heat Engine

HeaTrap
H-T Space
Intermediate State
Internal Energy
Isothermal Phase Transition
Isothermal Phase Transition Process Cycle

Keefengine
Latent Heat
Lattice
Magneto-Caloric Effect
Meissner Effect
Mixed Phase
Penetration Depth
Perpetual Motion
Phase

Quantum Mechanics
Range of Coherence
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Segment

Specific Heat
Superconductivity
Superelectrons
Thermodynamics
Thermosynthesis
Transmogrification
Tuyn Curve
Type I Superconductor
Type II Superconductor
Waste Heat
Work
Zero Point Quantum Mechanical Energy

    Thermodynamics:  The study of processes applied to macroscopic systems characterized by variables of state defined by a set number of physical quantities, particularly processes affected by temperature.  RETURN TO LIST

    The First Law of Thermodynamics:  In any process, energy and matter, in sum, are conserved.  RETURN TO LIST

    The Second Law of Thermodynamics:  All heat engine process cycles operating between a high temperature heat reservoir and a low temperature heat reservoir absorb heat from the high temperature heat reservoir and can provide usable work extracted from the absorbed heat.  In so doing, waste heat will be rejected to the low temperature heat reservoir, wherein the First Law requires the heat absorbed equal the work produced plus the waste heat rejected.  RETURN TO LIST 

    Perpetual Motion:  "The continual operation of a machine that creates its own energy and thus violates the first law is called perpetual motion of the first kind.  The operation of a machine that utilizes the internal energy of only one heat reservoir, thus violating the second law, is called perpetual motion of the second kind." From page 179, Heat and Thermodynamics 5th Ed., by Mark W. Zemansky, McGraw-Hill 1968.  RETURN TO LIST

    Quantum Mechanics:  A theory of matter and energy at the atomic level, wherein energy states of a system are discretely quantized and defied by a wave equation.  RETURN TO LIST

    Superconductivity:  A quantum mechanical phenomena in which a portion of the conduction electrons become "superelectrons" which are condensed to a state below the Fermi sea, separated from the "normal" conduction electrons by an "energy gap".  Since H. Kamerlingh Onnes first liquefied helium in 1904, it was known that superconductors showed zero resistance to electricity when in a "superconductive state" which occurred below a certain critical temperature (a few degrees above absolute zero) and below a certain critical magnetic field (a few hundred gauss).  This was believed to be a simple case of perfect conductivity until, in 1933, an experiment conducted by Meissner and Oschenfeld had a most unexpected result: they observed a superconductor expel an applied magnetic field from its interior in response to a lowering of its temperature, yet the magnetic field had been kept constant.  This phenomenon has become known as the "Meissner Effect".  This was an astounding result because it meant a superconductor had an ability to reorder its internal energy so as to produce magnetic potential energy.  It was not until 1957 that Bardeen, Cooper and Screiffer proposed a microscopic theory of superconductivity, known as the "BCS Theory", which showed that superconductivity was a quantum mechanical condensation.   RETURN TO LIST

     H-T Space:  Superconductors exhibit superconductivity provided the temperature is not too warm (within a few degrees of absolute zero) and provided the magnetic field is not too large (within a few hundred gauss).  A graph of magnetic field, H, versus temperature, T, represents H-T space, wherein the values of H and T determine the phase of the superconductor.    RETURN TO LIST

     Tuyn Curve:  A typically parabolic plot of the critical magnetic field and the critical temperature of a superconductor in H-T space.   RETURN TO LIST

     Phase:  One of two alternative states of a superconductor.  In the "normal phase" the superconductor exhibits no superconductive properties; in the "superconductive phase" the superconductor exhibits superconductive properties (ie., perfect conductivity, superconductive specific heat, and the  Meissner Effect).    RETURN TO LIST

    Adiabatic Phase Transition:  A phase transition of a superconductor in which the superconductor is thermally isolated from its surroundings.  RETURN TO LIST

    Adiabatic Phase Transition Process Cycle:  A heat engine process cycle in which the superconductor working medium undergoes adiabatic phase transitions.  RETURN TO LIST

     Isothermal Phase Transition:  A phase transition of a superconductor in which the superconductor is held at a constant temperature because it is thermally connected to a heat reservoir at that temperature.  RETURN TO LIST

    Isothermal Phase Transition Process Cycle:  A heat engine process cycle in which the superconductor working medium undergoes isothermal phase transitions.   RETURN TO LIST

   Meissner Effect:  A phenomenon of Type I superconductors, in which a steady magnetic field is spontaneously excluded from the interior during the phase transition from the normal to the superconductive phase in response to lowering the temperature to a value below the critical temperature.  RETURN TO LIST

   Magneto-Caloric Effect:  If a superconductor in the superconductive state (or phase) is thermally isolated, and an applied magnetic field is increased to a value above the critical magnetic field, the superconductor cools to a lower temperature. Such a process is known as an "Adiabatic Magnetization."  On the other hand, if a superconductor in the normal state (or phase) is thermally isolated, and an applied magnetic filed is lowered to a value below the critical magnetic field, the superconductor heats to a higher temperature.  Such a process is known as an "Adiabatic Demagnetization."  Both of these described processes are known as the "magneto-caloric effect" and are the result of latent heat exhibited at the phase transition which is exchanged with the internal energy of the superconductor (the phase transition being adiabatic).   RETURN TO LIST

    Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect:  If a particle (cross-section not exceeding the range of coherence) of Type I superconductor (coherent superconductor) is subjected to a magneto-caloric effect, the phase transition affects the particle as a whole simultaneously, whereby the Meissner Effect and the Magneto-Caloric Effect combine to render conversion of zero point quantum mechanical energy into useful work performed magnetically by the internal energy of the superconductor.   RETURN TO LIST

    Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect Process Cycle:  A heat engine process cycle applied to a coherent superconductor in which a Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect occurs at the phase transitions, wherein the coherent superconductor performs work and a heat influx is needed to restore the internal energy of the coherent superconductor to its original value.   RETURN TO LIST

    Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect Magnetization Process Cycle:  A heat engine process cycle performed on a coherent superconductor (see Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect).  The cycle begins with the superconductor in the superconductive phase.  The field is increased, causing transition to the normal phase, uniformly affecting the superconductor as a whole, and accompanied by an evolution of a latent heat of cooling.  The magnetic field is further raised.  The magnetic field is then lowered, causing transition to the superconductive phase, uniformly affecting the superconductor as a whole, and accompanied by a latent heat of heating.  The magnetic field is further lowered, resulting in a work output, and a heat influx from an exterior high temperature heat reservoir returns the superconductor to its original H-T coordinates.  RETURN TO LIST

    Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect Demagnetization Process Cycle:  A heat engine process cycle performed on a coherent superconductor (see Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect).  The cycle begins with the superconductor in the normal phase.  The field is lowered, causing transition to the superconductive phase, uniformly affecting the superconductor as a whole, and accompanied by an evolution of a latent heat of heating.  The magnetic field is further lowered, resulting in a work output.  The magnetic field is then raised, causing transition to the normal phase, uniformly affecting the superconductor as a whole, and accompanied by a latent heat of cooling.  The magnetic field is raised further and a heat influx from an exterior high temperature heat reservoir returns the superconductor to its original H-T coordinates.  RETURN TO LIST

    Enhanced Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect Demagnetization Process Cycle:  A heat engine process cycle performed on a coherent superconductor (see Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect).  The cycle begins with the superconductor in the normal phase.  The field is lowered, causing transition to the superconductive phase, uniformly affecting the superconductor as a whole, and accompanied by an evolution of a latent heat of heating.  Heat is allowed to enter into the superconductor from an external high temperature heat reservoir.  The magnetic field is further lowered, resulting in a work output.  The magnetic field is then raised, causing transition to the normal phase, uniformly affecting the superconductor as a whole, and accompanied by a latent heat of cooling.  The magnetic field is raised further and optionally heat from the exterior high temperature heat reservoir enters the superconductor, thereby returning the superconductor to its original H-T coordinates.  A maximum thermosynthesis occurs when heat is supplied only during the superconductive phase portion of the cycle.  RETURN TO LIST

    Range of Coherence: This is the distance over which the order parameter of the superelectrons may be considered uniform.  As a consequence, when a Type I superconductor is in an intermediate state of superconductive and normal regions, the smallest possible superconductive region is one having a diameter equal to the range of coherence.  The range of coherence is typically on the order of about 5x10-4 cm, designated by x.   RETURN TO LIST

   Penetration Depth:  This is a distance a magnetic field penetrates into the surface of a superconductor, designated by l.   RETURN TO LIST

   Type I Superconductor:  Generally, a Type I superconductor has a positive interphase boundary surface energy, wherein the range of coherence  x exceeds the penetration depth l.   RETURN TO LIST

   Type II Superconductor:  Generally, a Type II superconductor has a negative interphase boundary surface energy, wherein the range of coherence  x is shorter than the penetration depth l.   RETURN TO LIST

    Coherent Superconductor:  A magnetically and thermally selectively isolated Type I superconductor having a size substantially not larger than the range of coherence and larger than about five times the penetration depth.  RETURN TO LIST

   Demagnetization Factor:  A measure of surface distortion of a magnetic field due to surface geometry of a superconductor.  A non-zero demagnetization factor (or coefficient) is usually present unless the superconductor is a thin cylinder oriented parallel to the magnetic field.  A critical magnetic field will first be present at a site of highest field distortion, referred to as an initital critical magnetic field.   RETURN TO LIST

   Mixed Phase:  This occurs when a Type II superconductor having a non-zero demagnetization factor is subjected to a magnetic field higher than the intitial critical magnetic field, characterized by a very fine superconctive/normal regions structure.   RETURN TO LIST

   Intermediate State:  This occurs when a Type I superconductor having a non-zero demagnetization factor is subjected to a magnetic field higher than the intitial critical magnetic field, characterized by a coarse superconctive/normal regions structure wherein the superconductive regions are at least of range of coherence size.   RETURN TO LIST

   Heat Engine:  A device in which one or more processes are performed on a working substance during which heat is absorbed and work is produced.   RETURN TO LIST

    Keefengine:  A heat engine operating on a Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect Process Cycle, having any of the following forms.
    1.  A heat mover for moving heat from a colder location to a hotter location.  An example of this is air conditioning of a room with no moving parts, using only the heat of the cooler inside air to transfer the heat from the room to the hotter outside air.
    2. An electrical generator for producing electricity in response to absorption of heat.  An example of this is an electrical generator which absorbs heat from the air or a body of water, as for example via heat sink vanes; the generator may be a commercial facility, a home facility, or a battery substitute (ie., in a flashlight).
    3.  A motor for producing mechanical  movement in response to absorption of heat.  An example of this is an automotive engine which moves a vehicle as surfaces of the vehicle absorb heat from the surrounding air.   RETURN TO LIST  

    Thermosynthesis:  The Second Law of Thermodynamics defines how all thermal heat engines must operate: heat is extracted from a high temperature heat reservoir or region (for example heat of combustion of a gas within a combustion chamber) and a portion thereof is converted by the engine into work (for example movement of an automobile) and the remainder of the heat is rejected as waste heat to a low temperature heat reservoir (for example the atmosphere).
    The Second Law of Thermodynamics is an unavoidable constraint on the way in which the energy of collective systems may be used by heat engines.   For this reason, all attempts to realize perpetual motion have, and will, inevitably fail because all collective systems, no matter how clever, will faithfully obey the Second Law.
    Superconductivity involves a condensation of a portion of the conduction electrons to an energy state below that of the Fermi Sea.  And, while this "energy gap" may be quantum mechanical in nature, nonetheless, superconductors obey the Second Law because superconductors are always observed in the form of collective systems.
    However, it is possible to observe a superconductor other than in the form of a collective system if it is an isolated Type I particle having a diameter less than the range of coherence and not smaller than about five times the magnetic field penetration depth.  This "coherent superconductor" is in a uniform macro-quantum state isolated from any collective system.  If a heat engine process is applied to such a coherent superconductor, zero point quantum mechanical energy (energy below the Fermi sea) can be converted directly into work, requiring a heat influx to restore the coherent superconductor to its prior internal energy.  This result is referred to as "Thermosynthesis."   RETURN TO LIST

    Zero-Point Quantum Mechanical Energy:  The energy of the electrons of a metal at absolute zero, wherein all electron energy states allowable under the principles of quantum mechanics are filled.  This energy is known as the "Fermi" energy.  The Fermi energy is large, for example, equivalent to the thermal energy of a gas at 50,000 degrees C! (See Heat and Thermodynamics 5th Ed., by Mark W. Zemansky, McGraw-Hill 1968, pp.319-328.)   RETURN TO LIST

    Work:  A form of energy in transit which is harnessable to perform a useful action.   RETURN TO LIST

    Heat:  A form of energy in transit due to a temperature difference.   RETURN TO LIST

    Heat Capacity:  An amount of heat needed to raise a material one degree in temperature.   RETURN TO LIST

   Entropy:  A thermodynamic variable related to the amount of energy of a system undergoing change which is unavailable for work.   RETURN TO LIST

   Internal Energy: The intrinsic energy of a system.   RETURN TO LIST

   Specific Heat:  The amount of calories (heat) needed to raise a gram of a substance one degree Centigrade.   RETURN TO LIST

    Latent Heat:  The amount of calories (heat) evolved by a substance (either there into or there out from) during a change of phase (or state).   RETURN TO LIST

    Critical Magnetic Field:  The maximum magnetic field under which a superconductor can remain in the superconductive phase.  The critical magnetic field varies parabolically with temperature, being a maximum at absolute zero and zero at a maximum critical temperature, designated Hc.   RETURN TO LIST

    Critical Temperature:  The maximum temperature below which a superconductor can remain in the superconductive phase.  The critical temperature varies parabolically with applied magnetic field, being a maximum at zero magnetic field and absolute zero at a maximum critical  magnetic field, designated Tc.   RETURN TO LIST

    Lattice:  The nuclear and non-conduction electrons components of a substance.   RETURN TO LIST 

    Superelectrons:  A portion of the conduction electrons which has undergone a quantum mechanical condensation into the superconductive state.  RETURN TO LIST

    Conduction Electrons:  A portion of the electrons of a metal which are substantially free to move in response to application of an electric field.   RETURN TO LIST

    HeaTrap:  A heat transfer process of the Keefengine by which heat from an external heat reservoir is transferred into Segments of an Envelopment so as to complete a Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect Process Cycle applied the Segments.   RETURN TO LIST

    EnTraP:  An energy transfer process of the Keefengine by which work output from Segments of an Envelopment of a Keefengine is output via some useful modality, as for example electrically (ie., as a generator), mechanically (ie., as a motor), or thermally (ie., as a heat mover).   RETURN TO LIST

    Envelopment:  A component of a Keefengine composed (usually) of a multiplicity of Segments which are subjected to a Coherent Magneto-Caloric Effect Process Cycle.   RETURN TO LIST

    Segment:  A coherently sized particle of superconductor comprising a constituent of an Envelopment.  A multiplicity of segments may compose an Envelopment.   RETURN TO LIST  

   Transmogrification:  A point in a Coherent-Magneto Caloric Effect Process Cycle at which occurs the Meissner Effect phase transition.  RETURN TO LIST

    Waste Heat:  In a heat engine process cycle, that portion of the heat absorbed from the high temperature heat reservoir which is not converted into work, but is rejected to the low temperature heat reservoir.  RETURN TO LIST